Modern medicine allows you to translate HIV infection into the category of chronic diseases with which people can live for many years. To live to biological old age, you need to take care of your health, undergo timely medical examination to prevent the development of secondary diseases.
Currently, there are no drugs acting on the resting virus that can remove the virus from the cells it has struck, once in the patient's body. After the initial infection, the immune system produced antibodies, activated specific cells (CD4), which independently coped with the first attack of the virus. In the asymptomatic stage, an equilibrium is established, which can be periodically disturbed for such reasons as, for example, the presence of comorbidities, acute viral infections, drug use, alcohol, malnutrition, etc. As a result, new viral particles infect healthy cells of the immune system. Laboratory examination revealed a decrease in the level of CD4 cells. The body for a long time can reflect such attacks of the virus, restoring the number of CD4-lymphocytes. But gradually (how quickly, depends on the initial state of the immune system and the virus itself), the reserves of the immune system of the body are depleted, and the number of CD4 cells ceases to recover. The patient requires a specific treatment-art, which prevents the reproduction of the virus, and, consequently, the progressive defeat of the immune system cells by it.
Art-antiretroviral therapy-involves the use of three drugs that stop the reproduction of HIV. Like all viruses, HIV is extremely variable, adapts quickly to drugs. Therefore, art involves the use of a combination of drugs that stop HIV from multiplying and therefore reduce the amount of the virus in the blood.
Since art drugs prevent the reproduction of the virus, they should be used when there are clinical and laboratory indications, as well as in the presence of secondary diseases, such as tuberculosis. The appointment of drugs is made by the doctor according to strict clinical indications with the consent of the patient.
In the Republic of Kazakhstan, antiretroviral therapy is provided free of charge, which allows people with HIV to remain healthy and live a full life, pushing back the development of the AIDS stage. However, along with the benefits, the therapy brought new challenges. The main guarantee of the success of therapy is the exact observance of the regimen. To reproduce the virus in the body was suppressed it is necessary to maintain a constant concentration of drugs in the blood, which is impossible without a special regime.
It is enough to take drugs exactly at the appointed time, and this will ensure their full effectiveness. However, the appointment of antiviral therapy can cause emotional difficulties, medication can violate the patient's privacy, finally, compliance with a strict regime affects the usual way of life. All these circumstances make compliance with the therapy regime quite problematic.
Before starting treatment the patient should remember:
It is necessary to observe the main condition of antiretroviral therapy-not to allow interruptions in reception. If you ignore this rule, ARVT will not only be useless, but also harmful, since HIV constantly mutates during reproduction, and with the next omission of medication, the virus will begin to multiply and create viruses that will be resistant to the drugs used (i.e., resistance develops). Thus, the less chance a virus has of reproducing, the less risk it has of developing resistance to art.
It is necessary to study the regimen of drugs and strictly observe the reception hours.
Like most medications, art drugs have side effects that the patient should be familiar with before treatment. Therefore, in the process of treatment, you need to come to the reception every month and if you experience unwanted symptoms, urgently report them to the doctor.
It is very important to tell your doctor what medications you are taking in addition to treating HIV infection. Since the interaction of drugs of different groups can develop dangerous side effects or reduce the effectiveness of ARVT drugs.